Types and Characteristics of CNC Tools
Types and Characteristics of CNC Tools
CNC machining tools can be divided into two categories: conventional tools and modular tools. Modular cutting tools are the direction of development. The main advantages of developing modular tools are: reducing tool change downtime and improving production and processing time; as well as speeding up tool change and installation time, improving the economy of small batch production. It can expand the utilization rate of the tool, give full play to the performance of the tool when we improve the standardization and rationalization of tools as well as the level of tool management and flexible machining. It can also eliminate the interruption of tool measurement work effectively, and can use off-line presetting. In fact, due to the development of modular tools, CNC tools have formed three major systems, namely, turning tool system, drilling tool system and boring and milling tool system.
1. They can be divided into 5 categories from the structure：
②Mosaic type can be divided into welding type and machine clamp type. According to the different structure of the cutter body, the clamping type can be divided into index-able and non-index-able.
③When the working arm length and diameter of the tool is large, in order to reduce the vibration of the tool and improve the processing accuracy, such tools are used.
④The internal cold cutting fluid is sprayed from the jet hole to the cutting edge of the tool through the inside of the tool body.
⑤Special types such as composite tools, reversible tapping tools, etc.
2. It can be divided into the following two types from the materials used in manufacturing：
①High-speed steel is usually a type of blank material, toughness is better than cemented carbide, but hardness, wear resistance and red hardness are poorer than cemented carbide, which is neither suitable for cutting materials with higher hardness, nor suitable for high-speed cutting. Before the use of high-speed steel tools, the manufacturer needs to sharpen itself, and the sharpening is convenient, suitable for a variety of special needs of non-standard tools.
②Carbide cutting tools Carbide blades have excellent cutting performance and are widely used in CNC turning. Carbide inserts have a standard specification series of products.
3. Distinguish from the cutting process:
① The turning tool is divided into outer circle, inner hole, outer thread, inner thread, grooving, end cutting, end cutting ring groove, cutting, etc. CNC lathes generally use standard clamping index-able tools. The blade and body of the clamping indexable tool have standards, and the blade material is made of cemented carbide, coated cemented carbide and high-speed steel. The tools used in CNC lathes are divided into three categories from the cutting mode: round surface cutting tools, end cutting tools and center hole tools.
② Milling tools are divided into face milling, end milling, three-side edge milling and other tools.
I especially want to mention end mill cutters here：
End milling cutter is the most used milling cutter on CNC machine tools. The end mill has cutting edges on the cylindrical surface and the end face, which can be cut simultaneously or separately. The structure has integral and machine clamp, etc., high-speed steel and carbide are commonly used materials for the working part of the milling cutter. Our company is also a specialist in making end mills.
Lastly I want to emphasize the features of CNC machining tools：
In order to achieve the purpose of high efficiency, multi-energy, quick change and economy, CNC machining tools should have the following characteristics compared with ordinary metal cutting tools.
● Generalization, normalization and serialization of blade and handle height.
● The durability of the blade or tool and the rationality of the economic life index.
● Normalization and typification of geometric parameters and cutting parameters of tools or blades.
● The material and cutting parameters of the blade or tool should be matched with the material to be machined.
● The tool should have high accuracy, including the shape accuracy of the tool, the relative position accuracy of the blade and the tool handle to the machine tool spindle, and the repeated accuracy of the transposition and disassembly of the blade and the tool handle.
● The strength of the handle should be high, rigidity and wear resistance should be better.
● There is a limit to the installed weight of the tool handle or tool system.
● The position and direction of cutting blade and handle are required.
● The positioning benchmark of the blade and the tool handle and the automatic tool change system should be optimized.
The tool used on the CNC machine tool should meet the requirements of easy installation and adjustment, good rigidity, high precision and good durability.
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